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The question of why fortified rice is necessary has been common in the last few centuries. Several theories have been applied to the subject. They vary to the degree to which they can apply to water or heat treatment.

 Some of these may have religious origins or cultural significance. Fortified rice regulates vitamins and minerals in developing nations where people suffer from malnutrition and hidden hunger. 

It is a staple food consumed by half of the population worldwide supplying more than calories. Therefore, it offers a unique opportunity for improvement in nutritional level for healthy living.

Rice fortification contains several micronutrients such as Iron, Folic acid, and other complex vitamins and minerals in every rice grain.


Hidden hunger is lower nutrition when calories, consumption, and absorption of vitamins and minerals are too low to maintain good health and growth.

 There are many symptoms which easily identified in every third person suffering from hidden hunger:

  • Fatigue
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Exhaustion
  • Susceptibility to Infection
  • Skin Disease

The deficiency is not easily recognized, but the individual should suffer the consequences whole life. 


The US economy knows that the health standard directly affects the economy’s development. So, rice fortification is mandatory in these countries of the USA:

  • Costa Rica
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Papua
  • New Guinea
  • Solomon Islands
  • Philippines


By fortification, the vitamins, minerals, and many other nutrients are assembled in rice. The mineral and nutrients are lost in the milling process and then add the nutrients with the help of hot extrusion. Therefore, this rice can be found on dietary needs to be fulfilled and look like the regular rice varieties.

Different steps to be followed to make more nutritional components:

  • Dusting: The rice kernels are dusted properly with the micronutrient powder and relying on the electrostatic force to pack the powder on the grain surface. This rice is not rubbed off or washes off its nutrient because these are packed in it.  
  • Coating: A fortified mixture or powder is sprayed properly to coat the rice kernels to make it fortified or packed its nutrients. The rice kernels are mixed with the regular rice, typically at 0.5% to 2%. 
  • Hot Extrusion: The robust rice fortification method easily supports the effective impact in the micronutrient deficiency. The broken rice grains are ground into the rice flour then mixed with water to make the perfect dough.

After that, the fortified dough is passed through the hot extruder to make the fortified rice kernels. Then the rice grain is dried up and cooled, and then it mixes with the regular rice grain of 0.5% to 2%. The firmness of the fortified kernels is going to be determined by the influence of rice starch.

Choosing the best machinery is also the task for fortifying the rice to pack its nutrients in it. It is the crucial selection to improve the health of the available micronutrients in the rice grain. 

 In many countries, there will be rinsing or washing the rice before cooking. As a result, the nutritional component is dust off, or the nutrients are affected. For the effective fortification of rice, the grain needs to be:

  • Buyers Suitability
  • Incorporation of the worn micronutrients
  • Preservation at the time of cooking and preparation
  • Constant during transportation and cargo space


First, the premix micronutrient is mixed with water steam and powder of broken rice grain. Then passed it through the extruder for making the rice kernels fortified. These rice kernels are dried, cooled and packaged for further use with having 12 month shelf life. 

The shape and size of this rice is equal as regular size of the grain. Bear a resemblance of milled rice and its properties. The length is 5mm and width is 2.2mm of the rice grain.  



According to FSSAI guidelines, 1 kg of fortification of rice will contain the following: iron (28 mg-42.5 mg), folic acid (75-125 microgram), and vitamin B-12 (0.75-1.25 microgram). These rice zinc (10 mg-15 mg), vitamin A (500-750 microgram RE), vitamin B-1 (1 mg-1.5 mg), vitamin B-2 (1.25 mg-1.75 mg), vitamin B-3 (12.5 mg-20 mg) and vitamin B-6 (1.5 mg-2.5 mg) per kg.


The rice is cooked in a regular manner as such there is no special procedure requires. Rice is cleaned and washed in the normal way as the conventional rice. The fortified rice retains the similar in the physical or as well as raw stage. But increase in the micronutrients factors. 

Fortified Rice Benefits

Rice is every individual’s staple food and choice, either for a starter or a main course. Benefit of rice fortification is important to stabilize micronutrients to fulfil the adequate need for growth.

Fortified rice is the extraordinary kernels that mix with regular rice to make it healthier for consumption. 

  • Fortification makes rice more nutritious without changing any dietary habits of the consumer. Rice is consumed across the world, and when it comes to intake additive nutrition increases the demand and consumption level from low to high-income group. To improve the nutritional status, the fortified white rice has increased the minerals and vitamin index.
  • Iron is the vital element for producing blood in the body. Nearly 70% of the iron is present in the red blood cell or hemoglobin. These days, iron deficiency is common in every growing child, especially at the age of 5 years. Malnutrition is the cause of not rendering the iron level properly. The iron deficiency is completely fulfilled with Iron fortified rice and helps to sustain a balanced diet with all the required nutrients. 
  • Nutritional stores of value are highly demanded because of fortification. Rice fortification is reducing the risk of several deficiencies and improves the food quality.

Children require a specific amount of nutrients, which is essential in the growth ages. The adequate source of multivitamins and nutrients are done with the help of the fortification of rice kernels. 

  • Effective price intervention is the most important aspect. The overall cost is extremely low in comparison to health benefits. The total increment in the cost is approximately from 1% to 2% of the total cost of the product. 
  • Rice fortification contains natural micronutrients that aim to supply the required nutrients to cure malnutrition and underdevelopment. If people consume fortified rice, they easily maintain a well-balanced diet and good health in the upcoming years. The rice fortification holds the necessary micronutrient level in the perfect level of supplements. 

Fortification of rice is effective in cost and appropriately planned to deliver the micronutrient deficiency in the developing nations. The specific need of the fortification process is to give more nutrition in comparison to fortified rice prices. With the customized structure, the rice is available in every shape, size, and color.

Fortification is the post-harvest method that adds vitamins and minerals for human physical and mental growth. The rice lost its essential component during the milling or polishing process. 

 But the fortification method of rice is considered to increase the potential level of the non fortified rice grain by improving the quality of kernels. Thus, there is the gap between the current staple food scenarios, which has been accomplished with the help of fortified rice exporters in India.  

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